FE820en/2006 Transport Mips
The natural resource concumption of the Finnish transport system
Satu Lähteenoja, Michael Lettenmeier, Arto Saari, 2006
The Finnish Environment 820en/2006, Environmental Protection Department, 104 p. URN-ISBN 978-952-11-2994-0, ISBN 978-952-11-2994-0 (PDF). The publication is only available in the internet.
This publication is a summary of the results of the FIN-MIPS Transport research project conducted mainly in 2004-05. Funding for the project was provided by the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Finnish Public Road Administration, the Finnish Rail Administration, the Finnish Marine Administration, the Finnish Civil Aviation Administration and the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation. Overall responsibility for the project lay with the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation.
For the main part this report contains the same information as the Finnish version. However, to make comprehension easier, certain parts have either been added or omitted.
The study calculated the MIPS values (material input per unit service) of the Finnish transport system including road, rail, air, maritime and local traffic. This was achieved by generalising the case studies made during the project. The MIPS values were calculated in three input categories: abiotic resources, water and air; according to the differing infrastructure classes or routes. Average figures for the whole of Finland were also calculated. The average MIPS values per domestic passenger kilometre varied between 0.29 kg for metro and 2.16 kg for van for abiotic resources, between 2.8 kg by bus and 48.1 kg for tram for water, and 0.02 kg for cycling and 0.28 kg by plane for air. The respective values per ton kilometre in domestic freight transport for abiotic resources ranged between 0.23 kg for a full trailer truck and 10.8 kg by van, for water between 1.68 kg for a full trailer truck and 266 kg by plane, and for air between 0.02 kg for train and 2.8 kg by plane. Calculations were also made for international air transport as well as maritime transport.
Infrastructure share in the MIPS values for abiotic resources and water consumption proved significant, illustrating the relevance of allocation of material inputs between passenger and freight transport. The report demonstrates possible allocation methods for the different transport modes and their influence on the results. The decision on the final allocation methods made by the steering group of the project is presented and explained.
The MIPS values given in this study are useful in comparing different modes of transport in a situation where a decision is required and for calculating MIPS values of products and services, e.g. in companies. The report provided calculation examples to illustrate the differences between alternative modes of transport and the use of MIPS figures for certain routes for passenger and freight transport.
Total annual resource consumption by the Finnish transport system per capita comes to 130 million tons of abiotic resources, 1367 million tons of water, and 17 million tons of air. The share of street and road transport for the entire transport system is 87 % of the abiotic resources, 70 % of water and 76 % of air.
The final part of the report considers the means for decreasing the material intensity and resource consumption of transport. Relevant means are constructing less and resource-efficient infrastructure, decreasing the amount of traffic, increasing the ridership of vehicles and making choices between alternative means of transport.
Senior Adviser Merja Saarnilehto, The Finnish Environment,